TV Advertising


Television can only be effective if you see it enough. And enough is a lot. Enough is expensive. How much is enough? Many experts say you can measure how much enough is by understanding rating points. A GRP, or Gross Rating Point, is calculated on the basis of one percent of the TV sets in the TV marketing area. If one million TV sets are in the area, one rating point equal 10,000 sets. The cost of TV advertising is determined by the size of each GRP in the marketing area, and advertisers pay for a given number of GRPs when the buy advertising time. The experts advise that you should not consider TV advertising unless you can afford to pay for 150 GRP per month. Those can come in the form of 75 GRP per week every other week, or 50 GRPs for three weeks out of four, or even 150 GRPs for one week per month. How much a single rating point costs in your area depends upon the size of area, the competitive situation, and the time of year.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Constructing an Employment Ad


Experienced advertisers use a four-point guide called AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) to construct ads. You must, of course, attract attention to the ad, or readers may just miss or ignore it. Develop interest in the job. You can create interest by the nature of  the job itself. You can also use other aspects of the job, such as location, to create interest, create desire by spotlighting the job’s interest factors with words such as travel or challenge. Keep your target audience in mind.  Make sure the ad prompts action with a statement like “call today,” or “write today for more information.”

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Fear Appeals


Companies sometimes use fear appeals in attempting to motivate customers to action. The underlying logic when using fear appeals is that fear will stimulate audience involvement with a message and thereby promote acceptance of message arguments. The appeals may take the form of social disapproval or physical danger. For example, mouthwashes, deodorants, toothpastes, and other products make us aware of the social disapproval we may suffer if our breath is not fresh, if our underarms are not dry, or if our teeth are not white.

Aside from the basic ethical issue of whether fear should be used at all,  the fundamental issue for marketing communicators is determining how intense the fear presentation should be.

When using fear appeals, advertisers stand a greater chance of converting numerous of a product to its use than of convincing consumers to switch brands.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Advertising: Media Reach and Frequency


When advertisers discuss media, they talk of reach and frequency. Reach refers to the number of people who will be exposed to the message. Frequency refers to the number of times each person will be exposed. Although in some endeavors you should strive for reach, in most, frequency will help you even more. Remember, familiarity breeds confidence, and confidence serves as the springboard to sales.

Select a marketing method. Before you select any method of reaching the people you wish to reach, think these thoughts. It is not necessary to say everything to everybody, nor is it possible. If you try to say everything to everybody, you’ll end up saying everything to nobody or nothing to everybody. Instead, you should try you should strive to say everything to everybody. Your marketing message is the “something.” Your target audience is the “somebody.” Just as you take care in selecting what you will say, you should take equal care in selecting to whom it will be said. Saying the right thing to the wrong people is not acceptable. Advertising on television does wonders for your ego, but if your prospective customers don’t watch much television, it is folly.

Whether you utilize the method properly yourself, and whether you can afford it. When you combine two marketing methods with two other marketing methods, the total is more than two plus two. A synergistic effect is created whereby two plus two starts to equal five and six and seven. And when you combine five marketing methods with five others, your possibilities for success are increased many fold. The more methods of marketing you employ, and the greater your skill at employing and selecting them, the larger the size of your bank balance.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Common Advertising Techniques


It’s a good idea to be aware of certain common advertising techniques. There is nothing illegal or even misleading about a food advertisement that tempts you because it is photographed in a warm, cozy setting that reminds you of dinners at your grandmother’s house. But you should be aware that you may be buying the product because of the romanticized advertisement. Frequently used advertising techniques include:

  • Use of glamorous figure to endorse a product;
  • Use of sentimental pictures to awaken feelings of longing and nostalgia that the ad suggests may be fulfilled by using the product;
  • Use of “can be,” “up to,” or other “weasel words” that enable the advertiser to avoid making firm promises;
  • Implications that only the most up-to-date people use a certain product;
  • Gimmicks that make you feel you are getting a bonus, such as a free hairbrush attached to a bottle of shampoo;
  • Creation of market through convincing you that a new product will revolutionize your life.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Risks: Building Blocks of Success


A person’s confidence is best measured by his or her willingness to take risks. Fear is best reflected by the degree to which a person seeks to avoid risk. The old saying, “Nothing ventured, nothing gained” will always be true. Risk, the possibility of loss, is a necessary to success as air is to life.

Imagine what would happen if everyone decided to try to live 100 percent risk-free:

  • No farmer would plant a crop because there might be too much rain or too little. Or the market price for the grain might collapse.
  • No one would start a business because comptition might cause it to fail.
  • No television programs would be produced because there might be too few viewers to attract advertisers.
  • Investors would not put money into new construction, into oil well exploration, and into new ventures.
  • Artists and authors would stop work because people might reject their activity,

To be completely secure, people would take their money out of banks (the banks may fail), hoard food (there may be an atomic war), refuse to drive cars (I may have an accident), and patients in hospitals would refuse blood transfusions (the blood may be contaminated). A goal of 100 percent security would almost overnight destroy our economy.

To avoid risk completely, no one would apply for a job (you may not get it), submit a poem to a literary journal (it may be rejected), speak up in a meeting (you may be laughed at), or ask for an order (the prospect may say No).

Here is an important point: Success-oriented people take risks and sometimes the risks turn out to be losses. Thirty-seven percent of today’s millionaires went broke after accumulating wealth. But they came back to win. No investor is always “right,” and people who build shopping centers, rersidential neighborhoods, and office buildings sometimes lose money. In the oil drilling business, a majority of wells turn out to be dry holes.

How we react to defeat is the key. You have heard people who have failed in a job or in a business of their own say, “I’ve had it. Never again!”

At times, we all feel like giving up. And if we’re not careful, we will give up. Pressure from peers to surrender can be powerful. They tell you, “Look, you tried. The plan didn’t work. Why beat your head against a wall? Don’t feel bad. Most people who try something new fail.”

These people – your peers and “friends” – are often glad to see you surrender. It’s disappointing but it’s true. They don’t have the courage to do something on their own. If they see you fail, they feel better about themselves; you are one of them – another mediocrity.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Lectures, Line of Sight

Advertisement as a Symbol Package


Advertisements should not be thought of as things apart from the needs of the advertiser. Hence the function-oriented term ‘marketing message’ to suggest the motivation behind the ads. But—there is more.

The effects (if any) that ads are going to have on people are by no means certain. One way of explaining this is by thinking of the finished advertisement as a “symbol package,” using words, pictures, sound, and so forth in an attempt to establish some shared meaning between the creator of the advertisement and those who receive it.

The primary task facing the TV creative man is how best to get at people’s feelings. How can he communicate convincingly with what psychologists call the third ear, with the levels of intuition far behind reason—where the scales of judgment are weighted by feeling and primitive perceptions. This is the “open sesame” to believability and persuasion. The intellectual elements—the facts and the arguments—are just a superstructure on the process (often the subconscious process) of achieving conviction. The creative mind in TV advertising has to work with both logical and non-rational symbols. This is, after all, what a product image is—the total set of attitudes, the halo of psychological meanings, the associations of feelings, the indelibly written aesthetic messages over and above the bare physical qualities.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Measuring Advertising Effectiveness


The business advertiser rarely expects orders to result immediately from advertising. Advertising is designed to create awareness, stimulate loyalty to the company, or create a favorable attitude toward a product. Even though advertising may not directly precipitate a purchase decision, advertising programs must be held accountable. Thus, the business advertiser must be able to measure the results of current advertising in order to improve future advertising and must be able to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising expenditures against expenditures on other elements of marketing strategy.

Measuring advertising effectiveness means assessing advertising’s impact on what “intervenes” between the stimulus (advertising) and the resulting behavior (purchase decision). The theory is that advertising can affect awareness, knowledge, and other dimensions that more readily lend themselves to measurement. In essence, the advertiser attempts to gauge advertising’s ability to move an individual through the purchase decision process. This approach assumes, correctly or not, that enhancement of any one phase of the decision process or movement from one step to the next increases the ultimate probability of purchase.

Business marketers should also measure the indirect communication effects of advertising. Advertising affects word-of-mouth communications (indirect effect), and such communications play an important role in buyer decision making. Similarly, advertising indirectly affects buyers on the basis of its impact on overall company reputation and on the sales force’s belief that advertising facilitates their selling tasks. Advertising effectiveness measurement include a procedure for tracking and measuring the impact of advertising on the indirect communication effects.

Advertising effectiveness will be evaluated against objectives formulated in terms of the elements of the buyer’s decision process as well as some of the indirect communication effects. Advertising efforts will also be judged, in the final analysis, on cost per level of achievement (for example, money spent to achieve a certain level of awareness or recognition).

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Knowledge about Markets


Within the vast, diverse, and changing market no product is consumed at the same rate everywhere. Therefore, every national advertiser—the one whose product is distributed throughout the country as well as the one whose product is confined to particular regions—must view the market as an aggregate of many individual market areas, each of which is different from the next. Some markets are fertile and can be cultivated profitably. Others are barren and should not be cultivated at all.

The purpose of market analysis is to locate the fertile markets and estimate their sales potential. With this information the advertiser can then distribute effort among various market areas in proportion to their relative sales potentially and thereby maximizes the return on advertising investment.

In analyzing markets and market potentials, great dependence is placed on statistical data collected by the government. It is important that such data be precisely defined so that users will know what they mean and can thus make reliable comparisons when data are applied to different markets.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please contact www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight