Fraction


A fraction consists of two numbers separated by a horizontal or slanting bar. In either event, the number to the top or left of the bar is called the numerator while the number below or to the right of the bar is called the denominator.

There are at least four different interpretations for a fraction:

  • A part of a whole;
  • A part of a group;
  • Division of two numbers; and
  • Ratio of two numbers.

There are three different kinds of fractions:

  • A proper fraction – a fraction with a numerator less than the denominator;
  • An improper fraction – a fraction with a numerator greater than or equal to the denominator;
  • A complex fraction – a fraction consisting of a fractional numerator, a fractional denominator, or both.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

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Basic Thinking Patterns


Teamwork can be managed into existence by teaching people to use consciously and cooperatively four basic  patterns of thinking they already use unconsciously and individually. These four basic patterns of thinking are reflected in the four kinds of questions managers ask every day:

  1. What’s going on? It begs for clarification. It asks for a sorting out, a breaking down, a key to the map of current events, a means of achieving and maintaining control. It reflects the pattern of thinking that enables us to impose order where all had been disorder, uncertainty, or confusion. It enables us to establish priorities and decide when and how to take actions that make good sense and produce good results.
  2. Why did this happen? This indicates the need for cause and effect thinking. It is the pattern that enables us to move from observing the effect of a problem to understanding the cause so that we can take appropriate actions to correct the problem or lessen its effects.
  3. Which course of action should we take? This implies that some choice must be made. This basic pattern of thinking enables us to decide on the course of action most likely to accomplish a particular goal.
  4. What lies ahead? This pattern looks into the future. This is used for thinking when we attempt to assess the problem that might happen, the decision that might be necessary next month, next year, or in five years.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Take Risks


  • Think excellence. Great satisfaction comes from doing your best in every activity. Average performance is never good enough.
  • You are being copied by others in everything you do. So, set the kind of examples you want followed.
  • Speaking up is essential to leadership. Express yourself at every opportunity. Conquer fear by speaking up. You need other people to help you achieve your goals. So, win their cooperation.
  • Invest all the praise you receive.
  • Take 100 percent responsibility when things go wrong.
  • Coordinate the knowledge of other people.
  • Have the courage to take risks. Taking risks is as essential to success as breathing is to life.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Silence as Acceptance


As a generalization, the offerer can never consider silence by the offeree as an acceptance. In some cases the offerer attempts to bring about a situation of this kind by a statement in the offer to the effect that failure to reply will be construed as acceptance of the offeror’s proposal. Usually, the offeree is under no obligation to reply to any business proposal. However, if the offeree requested that goods be shipped on approval, or there is a prior business arrangement or understanding between the parties, silence may be fairly construed as acceptance. These cases are exceptional, however.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

The Skill and the Will


All training, whether it is provided by the training department or by you, should accomplish two objectives. It should provide people with the skill, meaning the ability, to do the job. Or it should provide them with the will or the desire to do the job. Some training will accomplish both.

The skills training you provide your people will be dictated by the needs of the business and the current skills of the people. First you must determine what your people need to learn. Here are some questions that will help lead you to the answer:

  • What are the goals and objectives of the area?
  • What are the responsibilities of each job?
  • What are the standards the people are expected to meet?
  • What are the skills needed to meet the standards, fulfill the responsibilities, and achieve the objectives?
  • What are the current skills and abilities of the people?
  • What is the deficit between the skills needed and the current skills of the people?

Providing people with the skills to do the job is only half the training job. People must be motivated to apply the skills they have learned; therefore, some of the training should be principally motivational in nature. As you develop plan for motivating your people, you will want to ask yourself these questions:

  • What should they know about the company in order to have a sense of pride?
  • What I can teach them about the department that will give them a sense of pride?
  • What kinds of personal growth training will enhance their self-confidence and personal pride?

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Organization Structure and Innovations


Organizational structure fulfils many functions—everyone in the organization knows who he or she reports to; how various repetitive/routine activities are to be discharged; who has what authority and responsibility; how personnel are grouped together (e.g., by departments or divisions); which individuals/groups have decision-making authority and which have primarily advisory functions (line versus staff functions); and what mechanisms are deployed primarily for reducing decision-making uncertainty, for ensuring differentiated or specialized responses to the operating environment, and for coordinating and integrating these differentiated or specialized responses. A well-designed structure that is compatible with strategy or is internally coherent and compatible with the organization’s operating environment tends to contribute to superior organizational performance.

Can organizational structure facilitate innovations? Possibly. Relatively flat managerial hierarchy and extensive decentralization or delegation of authority, including extensive use of profit centers and SBUs.

Certain kinds of structural changes, notably creating many self-contained, substantially autonomous units with stretch targets, extensive delegation of authority to lower level decision-makers, and delayering (removal of some of the managerial levels to reduce the number of approving authorities for innovation)  may increase the potential innovations of the organization.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Forces in the Environments


Environment is the sum of all the forces surrounding and influencing the life and development of the firm. The forces themselves can be classified as external or internal. Management has no direct control over them, though it can exert influences. The external forces are commonly called uncontrollable forces and consist of the following:

  1. Competitive: kinds and numbers of competitors, their locations, and their activities.
  2. Distributive: national and international agencies available for distributing goods and services.
  3. Economic: variables (such as GNP, unit labor cost, and personal consumption expenditure) that influence a firm’s ability to do business.
  4. Socio-economic: characteristics and distribution of the human population.
  5. Financial: variables such as interest rates, inflation rates, and taxation.
  6. Legal: the many kinds of foreign and domestic laws by which international firms must operate.
  7. Physical: elements of nature such as topography, climate, and natural resources.
  8. Political: elements of nations’ political climates such as nationalism, forms of government, and international organizations.
  9. Socio-cultural: elements of culture (such as attitudes, beliefs, and opinions) important to international businesspeople.
  10. Labor: consumption, skills, and attitudes of labor.
  11. Technological: the technical skills and equipment that affects how resources are converted to products.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

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