- Production Era: Prior to 1925, most firms operating in highly developed economies focused narrowly on production. Manufacturers stressed production of quality products and then looked for people to purchase them. The production era did not reach its peak until the early part of 20th century.
- Sales Era: Manufacturers began to increase their emphasis on effective sales forces to find customers for their output. Firms attempted to match their output to the potential number of customers who would want it. Companies with a sales orientation assume that customers will resist purchasing products and services not deemed essential and that the task of personal selling and advertising is to convince them to buy. Although marketing departments began to emerge from shadows of production, finance, and engineering during the sales era, marketing dominated sales and other areas. Selling is thus a component of marketing.
- Marketing: Personal incomes and consumer demand for products and services dropped rapidly thrusting marketing into a more important role. Organizational survival dictated that managers pay close attention to the markets for their goods and services. The trend ended with the outbreak of World War 11, when rationing and shortages of consumer goods became commonplace. The war years created only a pause in an emerging trend in business: a shift in the focus from products and sales to satisfying customer needs.
- Relationship: It emerged during the 90s. Organizations carried the marketing era’s customer orientation one step further by focusing on establishing and maintaining relationships. This effort represented a major shift from the traditional concept of marketing as a simple exchange between buyer and seller. Relationship marketing by contrast, involves long-term, value-added relationships developed over time, strategic alliances and partnerships retailers play major roles in relationship marketing.
01 Apr 2013 Leave a comment
in Marketing Eras Tags: 20th Century, Advertising, alliance, area, assume, attempt, attention, business, buy, carry, close, commonplace, company, component, concept, Consumer, contrast, convince, create, Customer, deem, demand, department, develop, dictate, dominate, drop, early, economy, effective, effort, emerge, emphasis, end, engineering, era, essential, establish, exchange, finance, firm, focus, force, goods, high, important, income, increase, involve, long-term, look, maintain, major, manager, manufacturer, market, Marketing, match, narrow, need, number, operate, Organization, orientation, outbreak, output, part, partnership, pause, pay, peak, People, personal, play, potential, prior, Product, production, purchase, Quality, rapid, ration, reach, relationship, represent, resist, retailer, Role, sale, satisfy, selling, service, shadow, shift, shortage, simple, step, strategic, stress, survival, task, thrust, time, traditional, trend, value added, want, war, World war 11, year
21 Aug 2012 Leave a comment
in 21st Century Corporate Strategy Tags: Advertising, assign, channel, company, competitive, determine, extent, function, importance, market, member, orientation, plan, Promotion, pull, push, relative, situation, support
The market orientation of the company towards the functioning of the channel members would determine the extent to which the company would get support from the channel members. In a highly competitive situation, the companies should, therefore, plan whether to be more ‘pull oriented’ or more ‘push oriented.’ This will determine the relative importance that the company will assign to advertising and channel promotion.
02 Jan 2011 Leave a comment
in The Consequences of a Bad Boss Tags: aggression, anxiety, apprentice, bad, beating, Behavior, behind, bigger, body, boss, brain, bully, burnout, bystander, carrier, cause, chain, chief, child, choice, company, complain, consequence, control, corollary, damage, demoralization, department, depression, drastic, dreadful, employee, escape, executive, expect, far, fatigue, form, frustrate, frustration, heart, heart attack, high, home, humiliate, innocent, insomnia, instruct, knowledge, ladder, leading, least, letter, level, life, loss, lot, low, mass, mean, motivation, murder, negative, obsessive, officer, organ, Organization, orientation, People, person, picture, potential, powerful, program, range, reason, repercussion, Response, result, seen, self-worth, shooting, short, sibling, spree, stomach, stress, student, sudden, suicide, system, tend, term, time, tragedy, transfer, trigger, ulcer, ultimate, virtual, widespread, wild, work, yell, younger
The leading cause of stress is the bad boss. In most organizations everyone in the company expect the chief executive officer has a boss, or has the potential to become a boss, even if that means you are instructing an apprentice or a student who is at the company for a short time on a work orientation program.
In terms of making our own choices in response to stress, even the very lowest person on the work ladder is still a boss—a boss of his or her own department. Thus, what a lot of people complain of having a bad boss, the corollary is that most of us are bad bosses—if not of others, then at least of ourselves.
The damage that a bad boss does is sometimes far more widespread than is seen at the time. With the ultimate control, as well as, knowledge of the bigger picture, the boss escapes the highest levels of stress at work, but can still be a powerful stress carrier. In just the same way that a child who is humiliated by a bully comes home and yells at a younger sibling, a boss can transfer anxieties and stresses to employees without ever letting them know the reasons behind the negative behavior.
When an employee is frustrated all day by the boss, these frustrations tend to get transferred along to innocent bystanders, rather like one of those dreadful chain letters. One may see drastic repercussions, ranging from demoralization and loss of self-worth, to burnout of virtually any organ system in the body. In the brain this burnout takes the form of fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, depression, or obsessive behavior. Aggression can be triggered, causing such tragedies as life and child beating or even mass murders during a sudden wild shooting spree. Bad bosses are even the motivation for some suicides. In the stomach or heart, the results of a bad boss are often seen in ulcers or heart attacks.
11 Nov 2010 1 Comment
in Generic and Grand Strategies Tags: achieve, action, adopt, advantage, alliance, approach, basic, business, capability, characterize, combine, competitive, comprehensive, concentration, concentric, conglomerate, consortia, cost, create, define, Development, Differentiation, Diversification, divesture, dynamic, enlighten, environment, explicit, fact, firm, focus, fundamental, general, generic, grand, horizontal, identify, implicit, indicate, innovation, integration, intend, joint venture, liquidation, long-term, low, major, manager, market, marketplace, mean, objective, option, orientation, overall, package, part, plan, possess, Product, seek, statement, strategy, Turnaround, unique, usually, vertical
Many businesses explicitly and all implicitly adopt one or more generic strategies characterizing their competitive orientation in the marketplace. Low cost, differentiation, or focus strategies define the three fundamental options. Enlightened managers seek to create ways their firm possesses both low cost and differentiation competitive advantages as part of their overall generic strategy. They usually combine these capabilities with a comprehensive, general plan of major actions through which their firm intends to achieve its long-term objectives in a dynamic environment. Called the grand strategy, this statement of means indicates how the objectives are to be achieved. Although every grand strategy is, in fact, a unique package of long-term strategies, some basic approaches can be identified: concentration, market development, product development, innovation, horizontal integration, vertical integration, joint venture, strategic alliances, consortia, concentric diversification, conglomerate diversification, turnaround, divesture, and liquidation.
22 Sep 2010 4 Comments
in The Characteristics of Diversity Tags: ability, acquire, age, background, belief, change, characteristic, complete, consider, dealing, define, difference, discard, diverse, diversity, divide, education, enhance, enterprise, ethnicity, gender, geographic, important, inborn, income, interrelation, live, location, manager, marital, mean, military, orientation, parental, person, primary, progress, race, religious, remember, represent, secondary, sexual, speak, status, typical, understanding, work, workforce
When managers speak of diverse workforces, they typically mean differences in gender and race. While gender and race are important characteristics of diversity, others are also important. We can divide these differences into primary and secondary characteristics of diversity. Age, gender, race, ethnicity, abilities, and sexual orientation represent primary characteristics of diversity which are inborn and cannot be changed. Eight secondary characteristics of diversity—work, background, income, marital status, military enterprise, religious beliefs, geographic location, parental status, and education—which can be changed. We acquire, change, and discard them as we progress through our lives.
Defining characteristics of diversity as either primary or secondary enhances our understanding, but we must remember that each person is defined by the interrelation of all characteristics. In dealing with diversity in the workforce, managers must consider the complete person’s differences.
22 Dec 2009 Leave a comment
in Customer Orientation Tags: billing, business, computer, constant, continual, create, Customer, deliver, design, determine, financial, gear, internal, maximize, measure, monitor, objective, offer, ordering, Organization, orientation, prefer, satisfaction, service, shipping, system, Value
- Do you know the objectives of your customers (and their customers)?
- Is your service offer designed with the customer in mind?
- Are your internal systems (ordering, billing, shipping, computers, financial, etc.), geared toward how the customers prefer doing business with you?
- Do you constantly measure customer satisfaction?
- Do you continually meet with your customers to determine their needs today and tomorrow?
- How is value created, delivered, monitored, and maximized in your organization?