24 Feb 2011
in Writing Useful Instructions
Tags: active, analyze, apparatus, appropriate, background, booklet, choice, clear, command, complete, complicate, computer, conclusion, correct, damage, demonstrate, describe, description, detail, device, diagram, divide, easy, element, enumerate, equipment, expect, expert, explain, explanation, familiarity, follow, format, gather, goal, group, heading, identify, importance, important, include, independent, indicate, influence, injury, instead, instruction, introduction, involve, judge, level, limit, list, machine, manual, manufacturer, material, memo, mistake, necessary, need, number, occurrence, opening, order, package, paper, paragraph, pen, perform, phrase, policy, possible, precise, Prepare, present, previous, process, prospective, provide, purpose, reader, refer, relate, result, review, self-sufficient, sense, sequence, several, short, simple, software, specific, stage, step, step-by-step, summarize, sure, task, term, typewriter, underestimate, understanding, useful, verb, warning, week, word, write, writing
When you need to explain in writing how to do something, a set of step-by-step instructions is your best choice. By enumerating the steps, you make it easy for readers to perform the process in the correct sequence. Your goal is to provide a clear, self-sufficient explanation so that readers can perform the task independently.
- Writing materials (pen and paper, typewriter, computer)
- Background materials (previous memos, policy manuals, manufacturer’s booklets, etc.)
- When necessary, the apparatus being explained (machine, software package, or other equipment)
- Perform the task yourself, or ask experts to demonstrate it or describe it to you in detail.
- Analyze prospective readers’ familiarity with the process so that you can write instructions at their level of understanding.
Make your Instructions Clear
- Include four elements: an introduction, a list of equipment and materials, a description of the steps involved in the process, and a conclusion.
- Explain in the opening why the process is important and how it is related to a larger purpose.
- Divide the process into short, simple steps presented in order of occurrence.
- Present the steps in a numbered list, or if presenting them in paragraph format, use words indicating time or sequence, such as first and then.
- If the process involves more than ten steps, divide them into groups or stages identified with headings.
- Phrase each step as a command (“Do this” instead of “You should do this”); use active verbs; use precise, specific terms (“three weeks” instead of “several weeks”).
- When appropriate, describe how to tell whether a step has been performed correctly and how one step may influence another. Warn readers of possible damage or injury from a mistake in a step, but limit the number of warnings so that readers do not underestimate their importance.
- Include diagrams of complicated devices, and refer to them in appropriate steps.
- Summarize the importance of the process and the expected results.
Test your Instructions
- Review the instructions to be sure they are clear and complete. Also judge whether you have provided too much detail.
- Ask someone else to read the instructions and tell you whether they make sense and are easy to follow.
My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.
17 Nov 2009
in Strategies for Worldwide Innovation
Tags: access, advantage, appropriate, arrangement, capability, cereal, channel, Consumer, country, Customer, demand, depend, detergent, develop, discern, Distribution, Domestic, endowment, environment, expectation, facility, firm, global, goods, government, home, information, innovation, international, knowledge, local, locate, low, market, mode, multi, need, operate, overseas, package, preference, Product, pursue, regulation, relative, requirement, rest, self-sufficient, source, strategy, successful, suitable, taste, technological, transfer, transnational, underpin, understanding, unit, world, worldwide
The multi-domestic strategy is appropriate for innovations that depend on understanding local customer preferences, tastes, expectations, distribution channels, and local government regulations than they do on the technological knowledge on which they rest. This strategy is appropriate when the need for market information is high while that for technological information is low. Makers of packaged consumer goods (detergents and cereals) such as Unilever have pursued this strategy. Firms that pursue the multi-domestic strategy have self-sufficient units in each country to better discern and meet local customer preferences and tastes. On the other hand, if technological information requirements are high relative to market information requirements, a firm may want to pursue a global strategy. Firms can locate their facilities either where the environment is most suitable for technological innovations or at home where they have some endowments that give them some advantage. From there they develop products for world markets. If both market and technological information demands are low, a firm can operate using the international arrangement. It can take advantage of whatever home capabilities it has to develop products for its home market. Once the products are successful at home, it can then transfer the capabilities and the innovation to overseas. If both market and technological information needs are high. The transnational arrangement is best. In this mode, firms have access to the best sources of innovation, and the technological knowledge and the market knowledge that underpin them, worldwide.
My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Lectures, Line of Sight.