Defining Norms


A norm is a standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is judged. Thus, a norm is the expected behavior or behavioral pattern in a certain situation. Group norms usually are established during the second stage of group development (communication and decision making) and carried forward into the maturity stage. People often have expectations about the behavior of others. By providing a basis for predicting others’ behaviors, norms enable people to formulate response behaviors. Without norms, the activities within a group would be chaotic. Norms serve four purposes:

  1. Norms help the group survive. Groups tend to reject deviant behavior that does not contribute to accomplishing group goals or to the survival of the group if it is threatened. Accordingly, a successful group that is not under threat may be more tolerant or deviant behavior.
  2. Norms simplify and make more predictable the behaviors expected of group members. Norms mean that members do not have to analyze each behavior and decide on a response. Members can anticipate the actions of others on the basis of group norms. When members do what is expected of them, the group is more likely to be productive and to reach its goals.
  3. Norms help the group avoid embarrassing situations. Group members often want to avoid damaging other members’ self-images and are likely to avoid certain subjects that might hurt a member’s feelings.
  4. Norms express the central values of the group and identify the group to others. Certain clothes, mannerisms, or behaviors in particular situations may be a rallying point for members and may signify to others the nature of the group.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Cognition in managerial context


The word ‘cognition’ means the ‘act or faculty of knowing.’ Cognition also signifies awareness, comprehension, discernment, insight, intelligence, perception, reasoning and understanding. In change management, cognition implies knowing when to launch change in an organization. This act of knowing is based on the collection and interpretation of data from outside. In other words, the way in which a manager collects and interprets information about the world outside the organization shapes his/her knowledge about change.

 

Specially, managerial cognition in the context of change is the recognition and interpretation of signals from an organization’s environment that denote impending shifts in the environment. If a manager recognizes and interprets the signals accurately, he/she is unlikely to commit this or that errors. On the other hand, both type of errors are more likely when recognition and interpretation are flawed. Then the key question is: what leads to flawed recognition and interpretation of environmental signals? If cognition is the recognition and interpretation of the world outside, what leads to faulty cognition on the part of managers?

 

Although this seems like a simple question, the answer is quite complicated. There are a number of factors that can cause flawed cognition, which can be broadly classified in two categories: (i) organizational factors that can lead to defective cognition and (ii) personal or human factors thaty can cause errors in cognition.

 

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please contact www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight