Channel Evaluation


Channel evaluation is a multidimensional construct and includes both performance measures of the channel and measures of contribution to consumers by th channel. These measures of channel performance have been grouped under three main dimensions also known as 3Es, i.e., Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity. Effectiveness is further subdivided into delivery and stimulation.

  • Delivery is defined as a short term measure of how well the channel meets the demand for service outputs placed on it by the consumption sector.
  • Stimulation is defined as a long term, goal oriented measure of how well the channel member stimulate latent demand to reach optimum levels of demand.

Efficiency is further subdivided into productivity and profitability:

  • Productivity is defined as the efficiency with which output is generated from resources and inputs used. In essence, productivity is a measure of physical efficiency.
  • Profitability is a general measure of financial efficiency of channel member, in terms of return on investment, liquidity, leverage, growth patterns in sales and profits, growth potential in sales and profits, market share, average inventory maintained, etc.

Equity is the extent to which marketing channels serve problem-ridden markets and market segments, such a disadvantaged or geographically isolated consumers.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures

Postponement


Postponement is the delay to the last possible moment of the final formulation or commitment of a product. The most general method which can be applied in promoting the efficiency of a marketing system is the postponement of differentiation for example, to postpone changes in form and identity to the latest point in the marketing flow or to postpone changes in  inventory location to the latest possible time. Minimization of the risk of speculation is achieved by delaying differentiation of the product to the time of purchase. Savings in transportation of goods are achieved because merchandise is moved in larger quantities, in bulk, or in relatively undifferentiated places.

Postponement is the opposite of speculation. A speculative inventory is put into a distribution center whenever the cost of carrying that inventory is less than the profit derived from having that inventory readily available to stimulate purchases.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Market Penetration Strategy


A market penetration strategy is the one that dictates that an organization seek to gain greater dominance in a market in which it already has an offering. This strategy involves attempts to increase present buyers’ usage or consumption rates of the offering, attract buyers of competing offerings, or stimulate product trial among potential customers. The mix of marketing activities include lower prices for the offerings, expanded distribution to provide wider coverage of an existing market, and heavier promotional efforts extolling the unique advantages of an organization’s offering over competing offerings.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Performance Review Discussion


  • Review what has been achieved since the last review and examine reasons for successes and failures;
  • Agree on actual levels of achievement;
  • Stimulate and discuss ideas about what can be done to improve results achieved;
  • Agree on future performance goals, the basis of measurement, and timing of review;
  • Help the individual analyze personal performance and underlying factors affecting performance such as skills and knowledge, job structure, standards, and resources available;
  • Strengthen the individual’s commitment to the job;
  • Learn about the individual’s interests, goals, and long-range career plans, and help the individual relate these to the current job;
  • Strengthen the understanding between manager and individual, and foster an open line of communication;
  • Discuss and resolve specific anxieties, uncertainties or misapprehensions affecting job performance plans and directions for future career development, plan specific activities in  support of these plans and directions;
  • Get feedback from the individual on how well you have managed.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Fear Appeals


Companies sometimes use fear appeals in attempting to motivate customers to action. The underlying logic when using fear appeals is that fear will stimulate audience involvement with a message and thereby promote acceptance of message arguments. The appeals may take the form of social disapproval or physical danger. For example, mouthwashes, deodorants, toothpastes, and other products make us aware of the social disapproval we may suffer if our breath is not fresh, if our underarms are not dry, or if our teeth are not white.

Aside from the basic ethical issue of whether fear should be used at all,  the fundamental issue for marketing communicators is determining how intense the fear presentation should be.

When using fear appeals, advertisers stand a greater chance of converting numerous of a product to its use than of convincing consumers to switch brands.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Purchase Decision Process


The act of buying is a significant part of everyone’s life. It is such a routine activity that we rarely consider in detail the mental process involved in product purchases. Just what are the steps in the purchase decision? Buyers usually pass through five stage process when they buy a good or service:

  1. Stage 1: Problem Recognition. The buyer recognizes a need, desire, or problem. The marketer tries to determine which needs, desires, or problems stimulate the buyer to begin the purchase process.
  2. Stage 2: Information Search. The buyer collects information about purchase alternatives. The successful marketer knows the sources of buyer information and their relative importance to the buyer.
  3. Stage 3: Alternative Evaluation. The buyer evaluates purchase alternatives in light of various criteria. Since these criteria may differ in each purchase decision, the marketer determines which criteria are appropriate to that decision.
  4. Step 4: Purchase Decision. The buyer selects a product from among the purchase alternatives. Up to this point, the marketer has done as much as possible to influence the buyer to buy his or her product.
  5. Stage 5: Outcome. The buyer experiences some degree of satisfaction with the purchase decision. Knowledge of this satisfaction is crucial to the marketer.

Only when this decision process is understood can an effective marketing program developed. This analysis of the decision process in five distinct stages draws attention to the fact that the buying process begins before the purchase decision is made.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Producing a Quality Product


To attain excellence in producing a product of high quality, your organization must:

  • Have a clear understanding of your products, its capabilities and applications.
  • Ensure that all of your employees understand the product, its capabilities and applications.
  • Understand your customers.
  • Understand the requirements of your customers.
  • Have a clear definition of the acceptable quality level of your product.
  • Have a clear understanding of what your customers define as the acceptable quality level of your product.
  • Have an effective means of measuring the quality of your product.
  • Continually solicit your customer’s views and evaluations relative to the quality of your product.
  • Continually communicate to employees the importance of producing a quality product.
  • Continually emphasize to employees that they contribute to product quality in the successful performance of their jobs.
  • Identify and then build upon the operating factors that sustain and contribute to product quality.
  • Utilize techniques that solicit and stimulate employee innovation, ideas and recommendations that improve product quality.
  • Utilize techniques that solicit customer ideas and recommendations to improve product quality.
  • Give serious and timely considerations to employees and customer ideas and recommendations.
  • Utilize effective techniques to test and evaluate  new ideas and recommendations.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Employee Communications


To attain excellence in employee communications, the organization must utilize communication techniques that:

  • Communicate the organization’s objectives, goals, priorities and values to all employees.
  • Ensure that supervisors clearly define the tasks and responsibilities of each of their employees.
  • Ensure that supervisors give employees timely evaluation of their job performance.
  • Communicate the organization’s expectation of quality to all employees.
  • Ensure that policies and practices are clearly communicated and understood by all employees.
  • Stimulate frequent face-to-face discussions between managers and their employees.
  • Inform all employees of the organization’s accomplishments, achievements and other important issues related to the work environment.
  • Involve employees in the department of organization policy and procedures.
  • Encourage employees to express their ideas and recommendations to improve the operation of the organization.
  • Provide timely feedback to employees regarding the organization’s consideration of their ideas and recommendations.
  • Solicit information from employees relative to their career goals and aspirations.
  • Provide employees with information they can use to make personal career decisions.
  • Inform employees of job openings within the organization.
  • Encourage employees to voice their problems and concerns.
  • Give timely consideration and response to employee problems and concerns.
  • Continually monitor what information employees want to receive.
  • Regularly measure the effectiveness of communication techniques.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Good Human Relations’ Spin-off


Most organizations and their managers realize the importance of maintaining good human relations. A climate of openness and trust can stimulate performance and foster loyalty. This kind of atmosphere can only have a positive effect on human relations.

Although many managers get a lift from knowing that they’re treating their workers right, there are practical benefits as well. When workers are satisfied with the interpersonal component of their jobs, they are usually more productive. They are also less likely to resign or to file a complaint with the personnel office, the union, or some other agency—both actions that could create additional expense and effort for the company.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

What Employees Need to Learn


What employees need to learn, beyond their immediate assignments, depends on what the employer wants them to contribute. Leading companies want employees to consider themselves members of the organization, to recommend and implement ways of making the company more successful. Consequently, they tell them a great deal about corporate goals and plans, the operation of the job site, the jobs of peers and managers, the functions of adjacent work units, the technology in use, effective problem-solving methods, and actual costs.

A handful of companies encourage employees to learn the act of technological adaptation, an art whose importance is destined to grow. Potential new uses of flexible automation, robots, or end-user office automation are limited only by the ingenuity of the users. Continuous learning centers are a good example of how to stimulate adaptation.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

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