Contingency Theory


The external environment’s contingency severity and degree of supportiveness or hostility strongly influence the nature of the dynamic external equilibrium a social system may achieve. Furthermore, the social system’s predominant internal structural forms and climates are crucially affected also. And these in turn strongly influence the social system’s capacity for achieving a dynamic internal equilibrium. Members of each social system define, scan, monitor, and interpret their environment proact and react, usually through a series of relatively minor adjustments. The process includes an assessment and understanding of how and to what degree the environment influences the system, and in turn can be determined by it. Such an understanding helps with the development of suitable short and long range strategies leading to objectives and policy structures that are in harmony with basic authority and task structure.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

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Structural Unemployment


Structural unemployment refers to that unemployment caused by the restructuring of firms or by mismatch between the skills (or location) of job seekers and the requirements (or location)  of available jobs. A major cause of this type of unemployment is the decline of the manufacturing sector. Another cause is the replacement of workers by technology. Structural unemployment calls for industry retraining programs to move workers into growth industries.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Sources of Conflict


Conflict flows from frustration and aggression. We feel concerned with conflict involving people who interact aggressively to achieve their goals, often at the perceived expense of others. The causes of conflict may be found in people, things, or conditions. It is important to diagnose as correctly as possible the underlying causes of conflicts, because sometimes they are not what they appear to be on the surface. For example, some conflicts between individuals are hastily diagnosed as mere personality conflicts, when in fact structural factors may be the basic cause.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Strategies to Cause Change


In developing a strategy for change, it is always useful to define clearly what is to be changed. Is it knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or entire group or organizational processes? Each of these is increasingly difficult to change, and each requires proportionately more time to consummate. In most instances, each of these four types of change requires that those preceding must be changed first.

The change process involves three general stages. The first is “unfreezing,” or developing a willingness and readiness for change. The second is the change process itself, which involves new learning. The third is “refreezing,” or the consolidating of the learning from stage two.

Structural strategy means the redesign of the authority, task, and other structures to accommodate changes in the external and internal environment. This approach is sometimes efficacious in localized difficulties, but it has limitations when the nature of change requires adjusting to a deeper level of contingency-severity rather than just adapting to a configuration change in the external environment at the same contingency-severity level.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Productivity Improvement Programs


The main elements of a successful productivity improvement program are the following:

  • Top management must be wholly committed to the program.
  • An effective organizational arrangement headed by someone responsible to top management for the program is essential.
  • Full awareness and understanding of the program objectives must exist at all organizational levels. Good labor-management relations are vital.
  • There should be free-flow communication between different structural elements of the organization. Recognition of the key role played by workers is crucial and must be demonstrated through a sound productivity gains-sharing system.
  • The program should be linked with measurement processes that are practical and easily understood. Goals should be set on the basis of feasibility as well as desirability.
  • The productivity improvement techniques (technical, behavioral and managerial) chosen for the program have to fit the situation and needs.
  • Monitoring, evaluation and feedback processes to identify results and barriers provide a basis for design improvements.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Productivity: Structural Adjustments


Structural changes in society often influence national and enterprise productivity independently of enterprise management. However, in the long term this interaction is two-way. Just as structural changes affect productivity, productivity changes also modify structure. Such changes are not only the result, but also a cause, of economic and social development.

Understanding these changes helps improve government policy, makes enterprise planning more realistic and purpose-oriented and helps develop the economic and social infrastructure. The most important structural changes are economic, and social and demographic.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Lectures, Line of Sight

Facing the Harsh Facts


Many companies that have lost profits or market share have managers who are still waiting patiently for their business to “get back to normal.” Others are looking for government help for their declining market and profit positions. Neither of these approaches is a viable situation. What is needed is less wishful thinking and rhetoric and greater willingness to squarely face the true facts about their markets and competitive positions. The demand changes that have occurred in many markets are structural, not cyclical, and it is unrealistic to expect any kind of a dramatic recovery or turnaround that will restore demand to former levels.

It is extremely difficult for managers who have built their entire careers around specific products and technology to accept the fact that their former business base has now leveled out from prior peaks, or worse yet, become obsolete or irretrievably lost to new competitors or technology. Obviously, many old-line steel managers could not imagine today’s world of aluminum cans, plastic auto parts and bodies, or Japanese, Korean, and small regional producers who constantly “beat their pants off.” Nor could managers in the high flying semiconductor business foresee the situation where their markets have not only ceased to gallop ahead, but decline dramatically, and where foreign sources, including Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan, have captured the bulk of the remaining business. Unfortunately, these are the facts, and an equally discouraging set of forces applies in many other markets.

It is understandable that managers who have grown up and lived through the growth years in any of these industries find today’s conditions difficult to accept. But they must change their myopic or unrealistic views of their business so they can tackle the hard work required to regain a profitable competitive footing. Otherwise, their situations will not improve and will most likely deteriorate further.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

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