Judges as Social Engineers


Our courts still follow the idea of stare decisis. This adherence to precedent furnishes a system whereby a businessman or businesswoman may act in a certain way, confident that this action will have a known legal effect. At times, however, some modern judges feel that it is their duty to engage in the practice that lawyers term social engineering—shaping the law to the judge’s own individual social and economic beliefs.

When a judge tailors a decision to personal ideas about how society should operate, the holding of the court may be directly opposite to what the legislature intended by the passage of the law. Many legal observers feel that this social engineering by judges is an outright usurpation of the privileges and responsibilities of the legislature. Many critics feel that the laws should be made by the legislative branch of government, not by the holding of a court. Business and trade interests usually favor the idea of permitting the legislature to enact the laws.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Customer Needs


Using communication skill techniques engage customers in dialogue that  allows them to  identify what  they really want or need. If you can tell what a customer’ behavioral style is , tailor your communications strategy as necessary. Keep in mind that some of their needs may not be vocalized. In these instances, you should attempt to validate your impressions or suspicions  by asking questions or requesting feedback. Gather information about customers from  observing their vocal qualities, phrasing, nonverbal expressions and movements, and their emotional state.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Making a Good Contact


  • Greet your prospect warmly and sincerely, using eye contact.
  • Allow your prospect some time to get acclimated to being with you, some time to talk. Don’t come on too strong. But don’t waste you prospect’s time, either.
  • Engage in casual conversation at first—especially about anything pertinent to what you are about to discuss. Make it friendly and not one-sided. Be a good listener. But let the prospect know that your time is precious. You are there to sell, not to talk.
  • Ask relevant questions. Listen carefully to the answers.
  • Qualify the prospect. Determine whether or not this is the specific person to whom you should be talking, the person with the authority to give you the go-ahead, to buy. Try to learn, during the contact, what to emphasize in your presentation.
  • Try to learn of your prospect’s attitude toward your type of offering. Tune in on his or her fears, expectations, and feelings—so that you can tailor your presentation to them.
  • Learn something about the person to whom your contact is directed, so that he or she will feel like a person rather than a prospect. Make your prospect like you, for people enjoy doing business with people they like. But don’t be phony. Don’t be syrupy.
  • Be brief, friendly, outgoing, and truly inquisitive. But be yourself.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Target Marketing & Mass Marketing


A marketing strategy that specifies particular target customers is called ‘target marketing’ to distinguish it from ‘mass marketing.” Target marketing says that a marketing mix is tailored to fit some specific target customers. In contrast, mass marketing—the typical production-oriented approach—vaguely aims at “everyone” with the same marketing mix. Mass marketing assumes that everyone is the same—and considers everyone a potential customer. It may help to think of target marketing as the “rifle approach” and mass marketing as the “shotgun approach.”

Commonly used terms can be confusing. The term mass marketing and mass marketers do not mean the same thing. Far from it, mass marketing means trying to sell to “everyone.” Mass marketers aim at clearly defined target markets. The confusion with mass marketing occurs because their target markets usually are large and spread out.

Target marketing is not limited to small market segments—only to fairly homogeneous ones. A very large market—even what is sometimes called the “mass market” –may be fairly homogeneous, and a target marketer will deliberately aim at it.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Preparing an Effective Presentation


The first step in preparing for a presentation is to analyze the needs of the audience. You can then tailor your presentation to their interests and expectations.

As you analyze your audience, consider the following questions:

  • What need or opportunity prompted the presentation?
  1. What is the general purpose of the presentation (for instance, a ceremonial occasion, information, persuasion, entertainment)?
  2. What kind of response or specific outcome do I want as a result of the presentation?
  • Who specifically, will be attending the presentation?
  1. What are the relevant demographic characteristics (such as educational backgrounds, ages, gender) of audience members?
  • What do audience members already know about the subject?
  1. What has been their exposure to, or experience with, the particular subject I am addressing?
  2. What background information is necessary for the group?
  • What is the audience’s attitude toward me, the presenter?
  1. What is the level of my credibility?
  2. How does the audience perceive my role in the meeting?
  • What is important to the audience?
  1. What do they want and need to know from my presentation?
  2. Of the information I have, what do they most need to know?
  3. How can I capitalize on the audience’s interests and expectations to reach my objective?
  • What are the physical arrangements?
  1. When will I be presenting? How much time do I have?
  2. How many people will be there?
  3. How will the audience be seated?
  4. What equipment is available for visual aids?
  • How will I improvise if my best-laid plans fall through?
  1. What if I have only a portion of the time that I expected?
  2. What if the audiovisual equipment I counted on is not available?

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Lectures, Line of Sight

Realigning the Organization


Organization or reorganization schemes have been proposed ad nauseam as solutions to many business problems. As a general rule, organizational changes, especially those that simply reshuffle the same names into different boxes on the organization chart, don’t improve anything. This does not mean suggesting some new organization approach that is better suited for these turbulent times. However, many organizations are too top-heavy, over-structured, and over-satisfied to be responsive to market needs and too costly to be competitive. The structure and staffing of any organization must be rigorously challenged to ensure it is really geared to accomplish the fundamental objectives of the business in as cost-effective a manner as possible. An honest evaluation of the answers to the following critical questions will provide a good function for action.

a)        Is the organization structured to serve markets or simply to manage functions and sell products? Have priority markets been identified? Does someone have primary responsibility for ensuring that the product/service package is tailored to each target market? Do mechanisms exist to ensure cross-markets? Is there any kind of a market focus in the selling organization?

b)        Are there enough discrete profit centers? Do enough managers feel the burden of full profit responsibility? Is the business unit larger than its most successful smaller competitors? Are there any big cost centers that are not assigned or allocated to someone who has a profit and loss responsibility?

c)        Are there corporate group or division staff redundancies? Do the same titles exist at different levels (e.g., corporate controller, group controller, division controller, plant controller)? If so, does it make sense? Can staff position or groups show how they actively contribute to profit results? If so, do line managers agree that these functions are worth the cost?

d)        Are there too many layers? Are there more than five layers between the business unit manager and first level workers? Are there managers with assignments limited to managing one, two, three or four people? Why? Can any of these activities be combined under one manager? Why not?

e)        Is the ratio of supporters to actual results producers satisfactory? How many people actually make a direct contribution to results (e.g., first-line sales personnel, direct hourly workers, sales order engineering and order entry workers, handlers of incoming materials, and storing and shipping personnel)? How many managers, staff, and support personnel are cheering them on? If there is more than one support person for every two producers, what do they do? How do they contribute to profits?

The questions are not new, but the answers are more important now than ever. Traditional or experience-based answers are probably wrong because conditions have changed so dramatically. Moreover, it is doubtful whether existing management can or will ever come up with the right answers, because they have vested interests and the changes needed are simply too tough for them to swallow. These organization structure questions are not as serious for many small to medium-size companies since they are not as likely to be troubled with highly structured, functionally focused organizations lacking a dedicated market orientation. However, even managers in these companies must constantly fight the natural tendency to become more structured, bureaucratic, and lethargic.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Functions of Goals


Goals have multiple functions. They are general guides or beacons for the change episode. They provide brief statements of the intended area of intervention.and in a political sense, abstract goal statements provide the umbrella under which individuals, groups, organizations, and interests holding diverse views can be mobilized to support activities in a general intervention area. Goals do not address the why (rationale) or how (methods) questions of change efforts.

 Goals should therefore describe the major directions of the change effort, be concise and clear to ensure comprehension by the intended audience, and be likely to elicit a positive response. Thus, content, clarity, and political attractiveness guide goal selection and formulation. The change agent needs to identify the parties and interests that must be involved, understand how each will react to various formulations, and tailor the statements to obtain approval of the necessary parties. The change agent often uses negotiating skills in helping the initiators, targets, clients, planners, and implementors to reach agreement on the goals of the change episode. Successive drafts may be circulated among the various participants until a version captures a direction acceptable to all parties.

 Goal statements are vital in the public debate about human service interventions. Goal statements are the public banners under which competing interests attempt to mobilize support the change efforts. Interest groups invoke strongly held values in their goal statements.

 My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

What’s Your Opinion?


A key part of the optimum result method is to get people to express themselves. Everyone has an opinion about a lot of things: What the company is doing, right or wrong; what’s good and what’s bad about the economy; how the mayor or president is performing; and whether any policy will survive.

 

And many people in a business have opinions about how the enterprise could be better run. The problem is, in most organizations the people who do the work are never asked, “What is your opinion?” “Got any ideas for doing this better?” and “Can you suggest a way to do this in less time?” As a result, a large amount of intelligence is untapped, the people with ideas feel frustrated, and the organization’s performance suffers.

 

A number of things explain, but one thing you should be doing is to get the opinions of your people before making key decisions. The best intelligence often comes from front-line staff. We install the steel we fabricate all over the country. Make it a point to talk with installation crews; ask for their opinions about what our customers are thinking. Maintain a steady flow of opinions, gathering information from your installation and sales people.

 

All people think. Encourage them to tell you what they’re thinking about. When you ask for opinions from employees doing different functions, you accomplish two things. First, you win their cooperation because they’ve had a chance to give you their views. Second, you pick up a lot of good ideas you can turn into profit.

 

Nevertheless, there is a problem when you teach the what-is-your-opinion technique to few managers. Some of them are conditioned to believe that asking other people, particularly subordinates, for their ideas is a sign of weakness. Letting other people express their opinions is a sign of strength.

 

Use the optimum results. It works wonders in getting what you want—a sale, a better job, and cooperation and support.

  • Find out what is the ideal benefit the other person seeks.
  • Tailor what you have to offer to provide that ideal benefit.

 My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Mobilizing Support


Mobilizing support for change requires a blend of logic, emotions, and values. The change managers should:

  1. Developing clarity about the target audience: in an effort to achieve acceptance of any change idea, it is very important to clearly understand who the relevant stakeholders are, what are their identities, their aspirations, their values, and their influence in the organization. The target audience is never homogeneous group. These would be people who may be ready to support the change ideas quickly, people who oppose change no matter how sensible the ideas are, and people who are willing to listen but should not be taken for granted. A change manager should identify the real interests of these sub-groups and should tailor the communication and persuasion effort accordingly. In other words, the change manager should be sensitive to the fact that there would be multiple views and perceptions in an organization and it is important to be clear as to what these are.
  2. Getting people involved: When a change manager begins the change campaign by making a strong presentation and supporting it with huge data, there is a danger that employees at the receiving end may become mere spectators and skeptics. At the same time, it is not realistic to expect that people would volunteer themselves to engage in defining a change initiative. What is most useful in such a situation is ‘foot in the door’ approach. This involves asking people to make a small initial commitment, which may be in the nature of asking their views on the present situation and discussing possible courses of action. Over a period of time, these small commitments could be extended to sustain larger change objectives. This approach is particularly useful to attract skeptics to the change program.
  3. Crafting the message: A primary process in the influence effort is not change in attitude towards an object, but change in definition and meaning of the object. Once meaning changes, attitudes change accordingly. A change manager should present the idea in such a manner that it evokes sufficient curiosity among members to explore it further. The message should be simple, but clear enough in its scope. Rather than a conclusive statement, it should invite people for a dialogue. People tend to be more attracted towards stories and symbols than hard numerical data. A change manager should be able to make use of these soft dimensions of relationships to gain attention to the change idea.
  4. Timing the campaign: Many ideas are rejected because they are presented at a wrong time. A change manager should first use informal meetings to generate the need for improving present levels of performance and make people receptive to new suggestions. Change ideas should be presented only when people are willing to engage in a dialogue process. This is very similar to a gardener first preparing the soil before sowing the seeds.
  5. Sustaining the momentum: Mobilizing support for change is never a one-time activity. It takes considerable amount of time to get people involved and committed to the change idea. It should be best for people with high expertise and credibility to lead the change. People listen to those who have expertise while framing their position. Then those people should be identified who favor the change idea and they should be helped to articulate their views in public. People tend to stick to their positions that are made in public

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

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