The Role of Experience


It is necessary to understand how knowledge is transferred to a novice. Textbooks provide novices with a background in a given area and a familiarity with the terminology used by other individuals in the field, but books alone usually do not produce an expert in a specific field. It is important to consider the type of experience that will be obtained and its role in developing expertise.

Certain difficulties exist when people try to gain experience from working with experts. Experts may be able to solve problems well may not be able to verbalize their techniques for solving them. Another difficulty in assessing the development from novice to expert concerns those problem areas that require creativity to generate solutions. For example, in the formulation of new products or new information systems, it is not always productive to look at past situations to find an appropriate method to solve a current problem. Sometimes new solutions are needed. Whether creativity can be learned is certainly open to debate, and there are valid arguments on both sides of the issue. If creativity can be learned, the issue of how to develop it and how to judge when creativity has been learned becomes important.

Overall, if the problem can be solved as a result of experience in the field and there are acknowledged experts available with sufficient agreement on the nature of the solutions, the problem can be attacked through the development of an expert system.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

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Graphology


The use of graphology (handwriting analysis) assumes that handwriting reflects basic personality traits. Handwriting analysis thus has some resemblance to projective personality tests, although graphology’s validity is highly suspect.

In graphology, the handwriting analyst studies an applicant’s handwriting and signature to discover the person’s needs, desires, and psychological makeup.According to a graphologist the writing examplifies uneven pressure, poor rhythm, and unseen baselines. The variation of light and dark lines show a “lack of control” and is “one strong indicator of the writer’s inner disturbance.”

Graphology’s place in screening sometimes seems schizophrenic. Studies suggest it is generally not valid, or that when graphologists do accutrately size up candidates, it’s because they are also privy to other background information. Yet some firms continue to use graphology—indeed, to swear by it. It tends to be bigger in Europe, where “countries like France or Germany have one central graphology institute, which serves as the certifying body.”

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Just about Cash Flow


Cash flow is different from profit. Profit is the difference between revenues and expenses. Cash flow is the difference between receipts and disbursements of cash. Profit may flow whether or not anybody has paid for anything. Cash flows only when somebody pays for something. Time after time, businesses with good sales and good profits go broke. It is surprisingly commonplace. The problem is the the cash doesn’t flow when the profit flows.

The explanations for the large number of new business failures, undercapitalization, inadequate management, and poor marketing, may be valid, but the overwhelming reason is that the managers did not understand cash flow. They behaved as if profit were cash, which is not. They acted as if all that is needed to win the business game is to make a profit, which is not true. Cash is different from profit. You need both to win the business game.

A business can survive and thrive only if it has both positive profit (not losses) and positive cash flow (more flowing into the bank than out of it). To win you must produce more than you consume, and you must do it in such a way that you can meet critical payments as they come due.

Profit may be the most common measure of whether a business is winning or losing, but cash flow is the most critical measure. Businesses can survive a surprisingly long time without profit. They die on the first payday there is no cash.

Your company’s bank is like a jar is a reservoir, so it is the gas tank. And what is in the reservoir is easy to measure. The amount in the reservoir is what was put in minus what was taken out. A convenient way to measure whether the supply is increasing or decreasing is to measure whether more was entering or leaving during the most recent period of time. Cash flow into the bank account is such a measure. How much is in the reservoir is of intetrest, of course, but it is changed by changing the cash flow.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

Why I wouldn’t buy from me


Part of knowing your product is knowing all the reasons someone might not want to buy it. Anticipate the reasons. State them clearly in your mind, spell them out on paper if necessary—and have an answer ready for each of them.

 

A good portion of almost any sales effort is spent overcoming objections. Don’t try to convince a buyer that his objections aren’t valid. Concentrate instead on altering his frame of reference.

 

In anticipating and overcoming objections a salesman has to practice a kind of theory of relativity. He has to ask himself, “Compared to what?” Think about a major purchase you have made—buying a house, for instance—and the mental gyrations you went through to get there. At some point you were making comparisons. Compared to another house that interested you, but in a slightly less desirable neighborhood, it seemed expensive. Compared to what you could have bought it for ten years ago, it seemed outrageous. But compared to its resale value, compared to what someone else might have been ready to offer, compared to what you deserve, you were able to justify the price.

 

In licensing the name of an athlete, I know the two objections we are most likely to encounter are the price—the size of the guarantees—and the athlete’s lack of availability to the licensors.

 

By helping the buyer see a different frame of reference, by altering his perceptions, we are able to finalize a licensee deal that has resulted in the company’s most successful line of apparel and in several million dollars of income to our client.

 

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight

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