Kinds of Advertising


Different kinds of advertising are used by various organizations to reach different market targets. Some major categories include:

  • Retail Advertising: advertising to consumers by various retail stores such as supermarkets and shoe stores.
  • Trade Advertising: advertising to wholesalers and retailers by manufacturers to encourage them to carry their products.
  • Industrial Advertising: advertising from manufacturers to other manufacturers. A firm selling motors to automobile companies would use industrial advertising.
  • Institutional Advertising: advertising designed to create an attractive image for an organization rather than for a product.
  • Product Advertising: advertising for a good or service to create interest among consumer, commercial, and industrial buyers.
  • Advocacy Advertising: advertising that supports a particular view of an issue
  • Comparison Advertising: advertising that compares competitive products.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

Products Liability


Over the years, individuals have demanded stricter laws to protect them from faulty products. Consumer protection statutes have been enacted in most countries. Manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers are generally responsible to the user of a product if he or she is harmed by it. Three theories of liability have been established:

  1. Absolute or strict liability
  2. Negligence
  3. Breach of warranty (express or implied) and misrepresentation.

My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, and my Lectures.

 

Nature of Business Market


Like final consumers, an organization purchases products to fill needs. However, its primary need—meeting the demands of its own customers—is similar from organization to organization. A manufacturer buys raw materials to create the company’s product, while a wholesaler or retailer buys products to resell. Companies also buy services from other businesses. Institutional purchases such as government agencies and nonprofit organizations buy things to meet the needs of their constituents.

 Business buying decisions, while handled by individuals, occur in the context of formal organizations. Environmental, organizational, and interpersonal factors are among the many influences in B2B markets. Budget, cost, and profit considerations all play parts in business buying decisions. In addition, the organizational buying process typically involves complex interactions among many people. An organization’s goals must also be considered in the organizational buying process.

 The B2B market is diverse. Transactions can range from orders as small as a box of paper clips or copy machine toner for a home-based business to deals as large as thousands of parts for an automobile manufacturer or massive turbine generators for an electric power plant. Businesses are also big purchasers of services, such as telecommunications, computer consulting, and transportation services. Four major categories define the business market: 1) the commercial market, 2) trade industries, 3) government organizations, and 4) institutions.

 My Consultancy–Asif J. Mir – Management Consultant–transforms organizations where people have the freedom to be creative, a place that brings out the best in everybody–an open, fair place where people have a sense that what they do matters. For details please visit www.asifjmir.com, Line of Sight